Compare Hearing Implant Devices

A hearing implant can wonderfully affect how you live your life, the way you learn and the way you engage with others. Deciding which hearing implant is right for you, a loved one or your child is an important decision. In fact, it’s life changing.

In order to make an informed decision, you will want to understand your options. The information provided on these pages is available to help educate you about the features and benefits of different hearing implants.

Cochlear Implant Comparison

COMPANY INFORMATION

COMPANY COCHLEAR ADVANCED BIONICS MED-EL WHY IT MATTERS
Year and Location Established 1981, Australia 1993, California 1977, Austria Years of experience and proven track record provide additional peace of mind.
United States Headquarters Denver, Colorado Valencia, California Durham,
North Carolina
It is helpful to know that you will have local support, even if the company's corporate headquarters are outside of the United States.
Recipients Worldwide 450,000+ 79,000+1 Not reported You can have added peace of mind knowing that there are others who have been where you are and trust the technology.
Access to Technology Upgrades Yes Yes Yes Assurance that you will have the option to upgrade to future technology as it becomes available without the need for additional surgeries.
Verified Research and Development Investments 13.8% of revenue2 6.4% of sales3 Public financial disclosure unavailable A commitment to Research and Development reinvestment provides you with added reassurance that innovative solutions will continue.

 

Please Note:
Unless stated in the comment field, data is taken from the product specification on each company's website. All attempts have been made to ensure accuracy and currency of data. However if using the data to support preparation of official documentation, it is recommended to seek the latest information from the manufacturer. Information reflects products approved for the United States only.

 

Considerations When Choosing a Cochlear Implant

SERVICE AND SUPPORT

COMPANY COCHLEAR ADVANCED BIONICS MED-EL WHY IT MATTERS
New System Warranty External sound processor: 5 years Internal implant: 10 years External sound processor: 5 years
Internal implant: 10 years
External sound processor: 5 years Internal implant: 10 Years Cochlear offers a comprehensive "No Questions Asked" warranty so you can rest easy when things happen.
Customer Service Access 24/7 service access through myCochlear.com, phone: M-F: 6AM - 6PM MST, Saturday: 8AM - 12PM, Email, Chat, Spanish- speaking customer service support Phone: M-F 5AM - 5PM PST, Email, Chat, Spanish- speaking customer service support Phone: M-F 9AM - 8:30PM EST, Email You'll have confidence knowing there will be someone to help you when you have questions - part of Cochlear's commitment to help you "Hear now. And always".
Next Day Service Request Yes, through Cochlear Link No No 84% of service requests from Cochlear Link clinics are completed within 24 hours and shipped directly to you.* Your replacement sound processor can be mapped with your specific programs.** No trip to the audiologist is needed which saves you time and provides you faster access to sound.
Automatic Registration Available Yes No No Your equipment is automatically registered at the time of activation. This saves you and your clinician time, leaving more time for personal counselling. This also ensures your waranty starts on time.
Insurance Reimbursement Support Yes Yes Yes Provides confidence that you'll have support and help navigating the insurance process.
Support Groups Yes: Cochlear Connections, Local Chapter Meetings (over 70 chapters nationwide) Bionic ear Association, The Hearing Journey Yes: HearPeers Reassurance that you will have access to many people who have gone through the same thing and can share their experiences with you.
Comprehensive Rehabilitation Resources Yes: The Communication Corner Yes: The Listening Room Yes: Bridge to Better Communication Confidence in comprehensive rehabilitation support for aftercare and throughout your lifetime.
Secure Online Personalized Website Yes: myCochlear.com No No 24/7 access to support, personalized resources, warranty and service status and empowers you to have more control of your hearing when you need it.

* Cochlear Americas. [data on file] 2016 October. Valid MAP required and some warranty restrictions may apply for next business day service.
**Valid MAP required.
With a valid implant registered.

 

Considerations When Choosing a Behind-the-Ear Sound Processor

BEHIND-THE-EAR SOUND PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

COMPANY COCHLEAR ADVANCED BIONICS MED-EL WHY IT MATTERS
Behind-The-Ear Sound Processor Options

Cochlear™
Nucleus® 6
 

Naida CI Q90

SONNET®

Having flexibility to choose the sound processor option based on your needs and preferences allows you to customize your hearing experience. A behind-the-ear (BTE) sound processor is worn on the ear and a small coil is held in place against the head with a magnet.
Ability to Amplify Sound Acoustically

Yes: Nucleus 6 Sound Processor with Hybrid™ Hearing*

No**

Yes: SONNET EAS

Ability to use your low-frequency hearing with acoustic amplification may provide better speech understanding and improved sound quality.
Hybrid Mode Programming (Using both acoustic and electrical stimulation in one device) Yes* No** Yes Being able to utilize acoustic amplification for any existing low-frequency hearing and electric stimulation for your missing high-frequency hearing may lead to a better hearing experience.
Sound Input Technology SmartSound® iQ ClearVoice™†† Automatic Sound Management 2.0 Input processing is designed to provide a clear signal to the implant, for an improved hearing performance.
Automatic Scene Classifier Yes (SCAN) Yes (AutoSound™ OS) No Automatic Scene Classifiers make it easier to hear in noisy situations by automatically choosing the environment and optimizing the sound without the need for manual adjustments, just as natural hearing does.
Microphone Technology Dual microphone Dual microphone Dual microphone Dual microphone technology is important for minimizing background noise.
Music Program Yes Yes Yes Music is an important and soothing part of life, and hearing loss shouldn't get in the way of enjoying it.
Input Dynamic Range (IDR): Up to 75dB4 Up to 80dB5 Up to 75dB6 IDR tells you the range between the softest and loudest sounds that are captured by the sound processor.

* The Acoustic Component should only be used when behavioral audiometric thresholds can be obtained and the recipient can provide feedback regarding sound quality.
** Naida CI Q90 EAS is not FDA approved.
† SNR-NR, WNR and SCAN are approved for use with any recipient ages six years and older, who is able to 1) complete objective speech perception testing in quiet and in noise in order to determine and document performance 2) report a preference for different program settings.
†† Not approved for pediatric patients in the United States.

 

Considerations When Choosing a Behind-the-Ear Sound Processor

BEHIND-THE-EAR SOUND PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

COMPANY COCHLEAR ADVANCED BIONICS MED-EL WHY IT MATTERS
Wireless Connectivity Available Yes Yes Yes Having the ability to connect to audio devices wirelessly makes hearing more convenient and easier.
Wireless Technology Built into the Sound Processor Yes No No* Wireless technology makes listening easier by transmitting or streaming sound directly into your sound processor. Bluetooth® technology is enabled by 2.4 GHz.
Neck Loop Needed for Wireless Technology Not required Yes, ComPilot Yes, ClearSounds Quattro 4.0** Connecting wirelessly without the need for anything around your neck is more comfortable and convenient.
Wireless Accessories Mini Mic 2, Mini Mic 2+, Phone Clip, TV Streamer (Complimentary options with new system orders) TVLink II, Phonak DECT Phone, EasyCall (Complimentary options with new system orders) Not available Having a range of affordable wireless accessories can complement your lifestyle and provide added flexibility to hear in certain environments particularly noisy ones.
Bimodal Streaming Yes, with all ReSound Smart Hearing™ Aids Yes, with Naida™ Link Hearing Aids and neck-worn ComPilot No Having sound streamed to both ears can help you hear better in noise. Cochlear features wireless technology without the need for anything worn around the neck for added comfort and safety.
Data Logging Yes Yes Yes Data logging records how the sound processor is being used in order to provide your audiologist with key information to help provide your best hearing experience.
FM Compatible Yes Yes Yes FM systems are among the most common hearing assistive technologies used with children, especially in school environments.
Compatible with Roger™ FM System Yes Yes Yes The Roger™ FM System is a common wireless accessory used in schools as an alternative to a traditional FM system.
Ability to Use with the Telephone Yes: built-in telecoil, Wireless Phone Clip Yes: built-in telecoil, Phonak DECT Phone and Phonak Easy Call Accessory Yes: built-in telecoil, ClearSounds Quattro 4.0 Use the telephone to easily connect with family and friends.
Ability to Use in Water Yes: IP57 Yes: IP57 Yes: IP54 With a higher water resistance rating, your sound processor can be sweat-proof and splash-proof, even in high humidity.
Ability to Use Underwater - IP68 Yes Yes†† Yes Being able to hear while in water is important to many people, particularly for parents who want their child to be able to play in the water like everyone else.
Remote Control Yes: (one included standard with new system) Yes: (accessory option) Yes: (one included standard with new system) Remote control technology allows you to manage your hearing in a discreet way. Parents find the remote controls especially beneficial to help manage their child's hearing.
Advanced Remote Assistant Yes No No Managing your hearing with a full-featured Remote Assistant, that communicates directly with your sound processor, helps to put troubleshooting at your fingertips.
Simultaneous Bilateral Control Yes Yes Yes You will enjoy the convenience of controlling both your left and right sound processors at the same time instead of individually.

* Wireless ready for 2.4 GHz applications. Pending FDA approval.
** Also compatible with the Cochlear Nucleus 6 Sound Procesor and Advanced Bionics Naida CI Q90 Sound Processor
† When used with the Cochlear Nucleus Aqua+ and the Aqua Accessory. Aqua Accessory compatible with the Nucleus 6 Sound Processor. The Nucleus Aqua+ accessory is IP68 rated and is approved for use with rechargeable batteries and is not approved for use with the acoustic component.
†† Naida is IP68 when used with the Aqua Case.
‡ SONNET is IP68 when used with WaterWear.

 

Considerations When Choosing a Behind-the-Ear Sound Processor

BEHIND-THE-EAR SOUND PROCESSING FEATURES

COMPANY COCHLEAR ADVANCED BIONICS MED-EL WHY IT MATTERS
Size (Smallest configuration – Height x Width x Depth in millimeters) Nucleus 6 CP920 with Compact Battery: 39.1 x 9 x 47.7 Naida CI Q90 with PowerCel 110 Mini Battery: 40 x 9 x 19* SONNET with Micro Battery: 51.4 x 9.3 x 37.4 The size of the sound processor can impact how visible and comfortable it is on your ear.
Sound Processor Color Options 5 9 6 You can personalize your sound processor based on your preference and lifestyle.
Sound Processor Cover Options 12 None 15 You can change your look every day to suit your mood.
Rechargeable Battery Life Compact: up to 18 hours**
Standard: up to 30 hours**
PowerCel:
110: up to 17 hours**
170: up to 27 hours**
230: up to 36 hours**
Micro: up to 7 hours**
Standard: up to 10 hours**
A longer battery life provides confidence that you won't go without hearing.
Disposable Battery Life Disposable: up to 60 hours** Disposable: up to 56 hours** Disposable: up to 60 hours** A longer battery life provides confidence that you won't go without hearing.
Retention Options Snugfit,™ Mic Locks Snuggie™ Sports Headband Helps keep your sound processor securely in place, especially for active adults and children.
Pediatric-Friendly Wearing Options Compact Rechargeable Battery, LiteWear PowerCel™ Mini, PowerCel Plus, Naida CI Clip, Kinder Clip, Bionic Buddy Critter Clip Mellie Clip, Huggy, Activity Hook, BTE Headband, Micro Battery Pack Having a choice of wearing options for your child's sound processor provides you with additional peace of mind and keeps the sound processor off of little ears for increased comfort.
Sound Processor Alert Lights  Yes Yes Yes Alert lights on the sound processor let you know if everything is working as it should be, which is particularly beneficial for parents.
Accessory Choices with New Systems Choice of 4 accessories Choice of 1 bundle 0 Allows you to get the most out of your new system.

* Naida depth dimensions are without the earhook; Cochlear and MED-EL width dimensions include the earhook.
** Battery life may vary.

 

Considerations When Choosing an Off-the-Ear Sound Processor

OFF-THE-EAR SOUND PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

COMPANY COCHLEAR ADVANCED BIONICS MED-EL WHY IT MATTERS
Off-The-Ear Sound Processor Options

Kanso™ Sound Processor

Neptune™

RONDO®

Having flexibility to choose the sound processor option based on your needs and preferences allows you to customize your hearing experience.
Design Off-the-ear, single-unit sound processor Bodyworn sound processor Off-the-ear, single-unit sound processor An off-the-ear solution provides more choices for those who prefer nothing on the ear or desire a more discreet wearing option.
Size (Smallest configuration – Height x Width x Depth in millimeters) 40.9 x 35.7 x 11.3 26 x 18 x 60 44.1 x 37.2 x 12.1 The size of the sound processor can impact how visible and comfortable it is on your ear.
Microphone Technology Dual microphones Single microphone* Single microphone Dual microphone technology is important for minimizing background noise.
Sound Input Technology SmartSound® iQ** ClearVoice™† FineHearing™ Input processing is designed to provide a clear signal to the implant, for an improved hearing performance.
Automatic Scene Classifier Yes (SCAN)** Yes (AutoSound™ OS) No Automatic Scene Classifiers make it easier to hear in noisy situations by automatically choosing the environment and optimizing the sound without the need for manual adjustments, just as natural hearing does.
Wireless Connectivity Available Yes No No Having the ability to connect to audio devices wirelessly makes hearing more convenient and easier.
Wireless Technology Built into the Sound Processor  Yes No No Wireless technology makes listening easier by transmitting or streaming sound directly into your sound processor. Bluetooth® technology is enabled by 2.4 GHz.
Neck Loop Needed for Wireless Technology Not required Not available Not available Connecting wirelessly without the need for anything around your neck is more comfortable and convenient.
Wireless Accessories Mini Mic 2, Mini Mic 2+, Phone Clip, TV Streamer Not available Not available Having a range of affordable wireless accessories can complement your lifestyle and provide added flexibility to hear in certain environments, particulary noisy ones.
Ability to Amplify Sound Acoustically No†† No No Ability to use your low-frequency hearing with acoustic amplification may provide better speech understanding and improved sound quality.

* T-Mic™ available with use of T-Comm™ accessory.
** SNR-NR, WNR and SCAN are approved for use with any recipient ages six years and older, who is able to 1) complete objective speech perception testing in quiet and in noise in order to determine and document performance 2) report a preference for different program settings.
† Not approved for pediatric patients in the United States.
†† The Cochlear Nucleus Hybrid acoustic component is not compatible with the Kanso Sound Processor. The Kanso Sound Processor is not intended to be used by Hybrid L24 Cochlear Implant recipients who receive benefit from the acoustic component.

 

Considerations When Choosing an Off-the-Ear Sound Processor

OFF-THE-EAR SOUND PROCESSING FEATURES

COMPANY COCHLEAR ADVANCED BIONICS MED-EL WHY IT MATTERS
Sound Processor Color Options 8 2 4 You can personalize your sound processor based on your preference and lifestyle.
Sound Processor Cover Options Customizable with Skinit® 10 Neptune Covers, customizable with Skinit® Customizable with Skinit® Express your personal style and interests.
Music Programs Yes Yes Yes Music is an important and soothing part of life, and hearing loss shouldn't get in the way of enjoying it.
Input Dynamic Range (IDR): Up to 75dB4 Up to 80dB5 Up to 75dB6 IDR tells you the range between the softest and loudest sounds that are captured by the sound processor.
Bimodal Streaming Yes, with all ReSound Smart Hearing™ Aids No No Having sound streamed to both ears can help you hear better in noise. Cochlear features wireless technology without the need for anything worn around the neck for added comfort and safety.
Data Logging Yes No No Data logging records how the sound processor is being used in order to provide your audiologist with key information to help provide your best hearing experience.
Ability to Use with the Telephone Yes: built-in telecoil, Wireless Phone Clip Yes: with T-Comm™ Accessory Yes: built-in telecoil Use the telephone to easily connect with family and friends.
FM Compatible Yes: with Mini Mic 2+ Yes: with Neptune Connect Yes: with Mini Battery Pack FM systems are among the most common hearing assistive technologies used with children, especially in school environments.
Compatible with Roger™ FM System Yes Not compatible with Neptune Yes The Roger™ FM System is a common wireless accessory used in schools as an alternative to a traditional FM system.
Water and Dust Resistant Rating IP54 IP44 Not disclosed With a higher water resistance rating, your sound processor can be sweat-proof and splash-proof, even in high humidity.
Ability to Use Underwater - IP68 Yes* Yes** Yes Being able to hear while in water is important to many people, particularly for parents who want their child to be able to play in the water like everyone else.
Remote Control Yes: (one included standard with new system) No Yes: (one included standard with new system) Remote control technology allows you to manage your hearing in a discreet way. Parents find the remote controls especially beneficial to help manage their child's hearing.
Advanced Remote Assistant Yes No No Managing your hearing with a full-featured Remote Assistant, that communicates directly with your sound processor, helps to put troubleshooting at your fingertips.
Simultaneous Bilateral Control Yes Yes Yes You will enjoy the convenience of controlling both your left and right sound processors at the same time instead of individually.

* When used with the Aqua+ for Kanso. The Nucleus Aqua+ for Kanso is IP68 rated and approved for use with alkaline and nickel metal hydride batteries.
** Neptune is not IP68 rated with Neptune Connect.
† RONDO is IP68 when used with WaterWear.

 

Considerations When Choosing an Off-the-Ear Sound Processor

OFF-THE-EAR SOUND PROCESSING FEATURES

COMPANY COCHLEAR ADVANCED BIONICS MED-EL WHY IT MATTERS
Retention Options Safety Line* with Alligator Clip or Hair Clip, Cochlear Headband Neptune Clip, Headband and Armband RONDO Attachment Clip, RONDO Hair Clip Helps keep your sound processor securely in place, especially for active adults and children.
Pediatric-Friendly Wearing Options Safety Line* with Alligator Clip or Hair Clip, Cochlear Headband Neptune Mini Pouch, Processor Harness, Swim Cap Mini Battery Pack Having a choice of wearing options for your child's sound processor provides you with additional peace of mind.
Sound Processor Alert Lights Yes Yes Yes Alert lights on the sound processor let you know if everything is working as it should be, which is particularly beneficial for parents.
Rechargeable Battery Life Not available Up to 21 hours** Not available A longer battery life provides confidence that you won't go without hearing.
Disposable Battery Life Disposable: up to 60 hours** AAA: up to 183 hours** Disposable: up to 72 hours** A longer battery life provides confidence that you won't go without hearing.
Accessory Choices with New Systems Choice of 4 accessories Choice of 1 bundle 0 Allows you to get the most out of your new system.

* Retention lines longer than the Safety Line (standard length) are not recommended for use by children as they may present a risk of strangulation.
** Battery life may vary.

 

Considerations When Choosing an Implant

IMPLANT

COMPANY COCHLEAR ADVANCED BIONICS MED-EL WHY IT MATTERS
Implant
CI24RE

 
Profile

 
HiRes 90K  
 
HiRes 90K Advantage
 
HiRes Ultra
 
CONCERT

 
SYNCHRONY

 
Implant options to suit your individual needs.
Implant Receiver Thickness
6.9mm*



 
3.9mm*



 
5.5mm*



 
5.5mm*          



 
4.5mm*



 
4.5mm* 



 
4.5mm*



 
A thin implant receiver is designed to potentially provide a more discreet appearance and less time in surgery.
Reliability Record
99.2% at 9 years7


 
99.97% at 2 years7


 
98.77% at 9 years8


 
99.81% at 2 years8


 
Not available



 
98.35% at 5 years9



 
99.66% at 1 year9



 
Provides peace of mind and confidence that the implants are designed to work over time without the need for additional surgeries.
Implant Reliability (Failures per 10,000)
80 per 10,000

 
3 per 10,000

 
123 per 10,000
 
19 per 10,000
 
Not available
 
165 per 10,000
 
34 per 10,000
 
Cochlear is up to 11x more reliable than other manufacturers.7-9
Pediatric Implant Reliability (Failures per 1,000)
10 per 1,000
 
0 per 1,000
 
20 per 1,000

 
3 per 1,000

 
Not available

 
Not disclosed
 
Not disclosed
 
Over time, Cochlear is 5x more reliable for children.7-9
MRI Compatible
Yes: 3.0 Tesla** and 1.5 Tesla
Yes: 1.5 Tesla**


 
Yes: 3.0
Tesla**
and 1.5 Tesla††
Yes: 1.5 Tesla
 
Yes: 3.0 Tesla
 
MRIs are an important medical tool, and you want reassurance you can get an MRI without concern.
Removable Magnet for MRI
Yes
Yes
No           
 
Yes
 
Removing the magnet can help provide a clearer image if MRI is needed for the head.
Number of Channels 22 Channels (22 electrodes) 16 Channels (16 electrodes) 12 Channels (19-24 electrodes - Up to 12 pairs) A higher number of channels could be beneficial with programming problem areas of the cochlea potentially giving you a better hearing performance.
Choice of Electrode Arrays 5 Electrode Arrays 3 Electrode Arrays 5 Electrode Arrays The cochlea comes in all different shapes and sizes so providing a selection can ensure that your surgeon can choose the best one based on your specific needs.
Hybrid Electrode
Yes

 
No

 
 
No
No  

 
Yes

 
Provides your surgeon with an electrode array choice approved for hearing preservation.
Electrode Placed Closest to Hearing Nerve Yes: Slim Modiolar Electrode (CI532)
No
No
Perimodiolar electrodes deliver focused stimulation due to their close proximity to the hearing nerve for optimal hearing performance.10
Thinnest Electrode Diameter Slim Modiolar Electrode (CI532)
Apical (Tip): 0.35mm*
Basal (Base): 0.475mm*
HiFocus 1J Electrode
Apical (Tip): 0.4mm*
Basal (Base): 0.8mm*
FLEX20 Electrode
Apical (Tip): 0.5x0.3mm*
Basal (Base): 0.8mm*
Thin electrodes are designed to preserve the delicate cochlear structures.

* Measurements according to manufacturers specifications collateral.
** With magnet removed.
† With magnet in place and MRI Kit.
†† With magnet in place.
‡ The Nucleus Hybrid Implant (L24) is approved in the US for adults ages 18 and older.



©Cochlear Limited 2016. All rights reserved. Hear now. And always and other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of Cochlear Limited. The names of actual companies and products mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners. The Bluetooth® word mark and logos are registered trademarks owned by Bluetooth SIG,Inc. and any use of such marks by Cochlear is under license.

 

References

  1. Advanced Bionics. 2015 Cochlear Implant Reliability Report [Internet]. Valencia, California: publisher unknown; date unknown [as of 2014 August 6; cited 2016 Jun 20]. Available from: https://www.advancedbionics.com/content/dam/ab/global/en_ce/documents/candidate/ AB_2015_Cochlear_Implant_reliability_report.pdf
  2. Cochlear Americas. Cochlear Annual Report 2015 Hearing Performance [Internet]. Macquarie University, NSW, Australia: publisher unknown; date unknown [2015 August; cited 2016 Jun 20].   Available   from:   http://www.cochlear.com/wps/wcm/connect/shared-library/downloads/ global-downloads/about-cochlear/annual-report-fy-2015-financial
  3. Sonova. Sonova Annual Report 2014/15. [Internet]. Stafa, Switzerland: publisher unknown; date unknown [ 2015 May; cited 2016 Jun 20]. Available from http://report.sonova.com/2015/en.
  4. Data on file.
  5. Firszt J. Advanced Bionics [Internet]. Milwaukee, WI: [publisher unknown]; [date unknown; cited 2016 NOV 11]. Available from: https://www.advancedbionics.com/content/dam/ab/ Global/en_ce/documents/libraries/Professional%20Library/AB%20Technical%20Reports/ Sound%20Processing/HiResolution_Sound_Processing_article.pdf
  6. Med-El [Internet]. Durham, NC: Med-El; [date unknown] [cited 2016 NOV 11]. Available from: http://www.medel.com/us/automatic-sound-management/
  7. Cochlear Americas. Cochlear™ Nucleus® Reliability Report Volume 14 February 2016 [Internet]. Macquarie University, NSW, Australia: publisher unknown; date unknown [2016 February; cited 2016 June 20]. Available from: http://www.cochlear.com/wps/wcm/connect/ shared-library/downloads/global-downloads/cochlear-implant/cochlear-nucleus-reliability- report-2016
  8. Advanced Bionics. 2015 Cochlear Implant Reliability Report [Internet]. Valencia, California: publisher unknown; date unknown [as of 2014 August 6; cited 2016 June 20]. Available from: https://www.advancedbionics.com/content/dam/ab/global/en_ce/documents/candidate/ AB_2015_Cochlear_Implant_reliability_report.pdf
  9. Med-El. Reliability You Can Count On [Internet]. place unknown: publisher unknown; date Unknown [2015; Cited 2016 June 20]. Available from: http://www.medel.com/us/ reliability-reporting/
  10. Cohen L, Richardson L, Saunders E, Cowan R. Spatial spread of neural excitation in cochlear implant recipients: comparison of improved ECAP method and psychophysical forward masking. Hearing Research 179 (2003); p. 72-87.