Compare Hearing Implant Devices

A hearing implant can wonderfully affect how you live your life, the way you learn and the way you engage with others. Deciding which hearing implant is right for you, a loved one or your child is an important decision. In fact, it’s life changing.

In order to make an informed decision, you will want to understand your options. The information provided on these pages is available to help educate you about the features and benefits of different hearing implants.

Please Note:

Unless stated in the comment field, data is taken from the product specifications on each company's website. All attempts have been made to ensure accuracy and currency of data. However if using the data to support preparation of official documentation, it is recommended to seek the latest information from the manufacturer. Information reflects products approved for the United States only.

Cochlear Implant Comparison

Cochlear Implant Comparison

COMPANY COCHLEAR ADVANCED BIONICS MED-EL WHY IT MATTERS
Year and Location Established 1981, Australia 1993, California 1977, Austria Years of experience and proven track record provide additional peace of mind.
United States Headquarters Denver, Colorado Valencia, California Durham,
North Carolina
It is helpful to know that you will have local support, even if the company's corporate headquarters are outside of the United States.
Recipients Worldwide 450,000¹ 79,000+² Not reported You can have added peace of mind knowing that there are others who have been where you are and trust the technology.
Access to Technology Upgrades Yes Yes Yes Assurance that you will have the option to upgrade to future technology as it becomes available without the need for additional surgeries.
Verified Research and Development Investments 12% of revenue¹ 5.7% of sales3 Public financial disclosure unavailable A commitment to Research and Development reinvestment provides you with added reassurance that innovative solutions will continue.

Considerations When Choosing a Cochlear Implant

COMPANY COCHLEAR ADVANCED BIONICS MED-EL WHY IT MATTERS
New System Warranty External sound processor: 5 years Internal implant: 10 years External sound processor: 5 years
Internal implant: 10 years
External sound processor: 5 years Internal implant: 10 Years Cochlear offers a comprehensive "No Questions Asked" warranty so you can rest easy when things happen.
Customer Service Access 24/7 service access through myCochlear.com, phone: M-F: 6AM - 6PM MST, Saturday: 8AM - 12PM, Email, Chat, Spanish- speaking customer service support Phone: M-F 5AM - 5PM PST, Email, Chat, Spanish- speaking customer service support Phone: M-F 9AM - 8:30PM EST, Email You'll have confidence knowing there will be someone to help you when you have questions - part of Cochlear's commitment to help you "Hear now. And always".
Next Day Service Request Yes, through Cochlear Link No No 84% of service requests from Cochlear Link clinics are completed within 24 hours and shipped directly to you.* Your replacement sound processor can be mapped with your specific programs.** No trip to the audiologist is needed which saves you time and provides you faster access to sound.
Automatic Registration Available Yes No No Your equipment is automatically registered at the time of activation. This saves you and your clinician time, leaving more time for personal counselling. This also ensures your waranty starts on time.
Wireless Programming Yes†† No No Your audiologist may use the Wireless Programming Pod to connect to your sound processor without the need for wires. This will provide a more comfortable and relaxed fitting appointment – cable-free.
Insurance Reimbursement Support Yes Yes Yes Provides confidence that you'll have support and help navigating the insurance process.
Support Groups Yes: Cochlear Connections, Local Chapter Meetings (over 70 chapters nationwide) Bionic ear Association, The Hearing Journey Yes: HearPeers Reassurance that you will have access to many people who have gone through the same thing and can share their experiences with you.
Comprehensive Rehabilitation Resources Yes: The Communication Corner Yes: The Listening Room Yes: Bridge to Better Communication Confidence in comprehensive rehabilitation support for aftercare and throughout your lifetime.
Secure Online Personalized Website Yes: myCochlear.com No No 24/7 access to support, personalized resources, warranty and service status and empowers you to have more control of your hearing when you need it.

* Cochlear Americas. [data on file] 2016 October. Valid MAP required and some warranty restrictions may apply for next business day service.
** Valid MAP required.
With a valid implant registered.
†† Wireless programming is not available with the Kanso Sound Processor.

Considerations When Choosing a Behind-the-Ear Sound Processor

COMPANY COCHLEAR ADVANCED BIONICS MED-EL WHY IT MATTERS
Behind-The-Ear Sound Processor Options

Cochlear™
Nucleus® 7

Nucleus 7

Naida CI Q90

Nucleus 6

SONNET®

Nucleus 6
Having flexibility to choose the sound processor option based on your needs and preferences allows you to customize your hearing experience. A behind-the-ear (BTE) sound processor is worn on the ear and a small coil is held in place against the head with a magnet.
Ability to Amplify Sound Acoustically

Yes: Nucleus 7 Sound Processor with Hybrid™ Hearing*

Nucleas 7 Hybrid

No**

Yes: SONNET EAS

Ability to use your natural low-frequency hearing with acoustic amplification may provide a richer hearing experience.
Hybrid Mode Programming (Using both acoustic and electrical stimulation in one device) Yes* No** Yes Being able to utilize acoustic amplification for any existing natural low-frequency hearing you may have after surgery and electric stimulation for your missing high-frequency hearing.
Sound Input Technology SmartSound® iQ*** ClearVoice™† Automatic Sound Management 2.0 Input processing is designed to provide a clear signal to the implant, for an improved hearing performance.
Automatic Scene Classifier Yes (SCAN)*** Yes (AutoSound™ OS) No Automatic Scene Classifiers make it easier to hear in noisy situations by automatically choosing the environment and optimizing the sound without the need for manual adjustments, just as natural hearing does.
Microphone Technology Dual microphone Dual microphone Dual microphone Dual microphone technology is important for minimizing background noise.
Music Program Yes Yes Yes Music is an important and soothing part of life, and hearing loss shouldn't get in the way of enjoying it.
Input Dynamic Range (IDR): Up to 75dB4 Up to 80dB5 Up to 75dB6 IDR tells you the range between the softest and loudest sounds that are captured by the sound processor.
Made for iPhone Compatibility Yes†† No No Conveniently control your hearing and connect to those you love by streaming phone calls, music and videos directly to your sound processor with a compatible Apple® device
Wireless Connectivity Available Yes Yes Yes Having the ability to connect to audio devices wirelessly makes hearing easier.
Wireless Technology Built into the Sound Processor Yes No No††† Wireless technology helps make listening easier by transmitting or streaming sound directly into your sound processor. Bluetooth® technology is enabled by 2.4 GHz.
Neck Loop Needed for Wireless Technology Not required Yes, ComPilot Yes, ClearSounds Quattro 4.0 Connecting wirelessly without the need for anything around your neck is more comfortable and convenient.
Wireless Accessories Mini Mic 2, Mini Mic 2+, Phone Clip, TV Streamer (Complimentary options with new system orders) TVLink II, Phonak DECT Phone, EasyCall (Complimentary options with new system orders) Not available Having a range of affordable wireless accessories can complement your lifestyle and provide added flexibility to hear in certain environments particularly noisy ones.
Bimodal Streaming Yes, with all ReSound Smart Hearing™ Aids Yes, with Naida™ Link Hearing Aids and neck-worn ComPilot No Having sound streamed to both ears can help you hear better in noise. Cochlear features wireless technology without the need for anything worn around the neck for added comfort and safety.
Made for iPhone Bimodal Hearing Solution Yes, with the Cochlear Nucleus 7 Sound Processor and a compatible ReSound hearing aid‡‡ No No You can stream sound directly to both ears and conveniently manage both devices at once from a compatible Apple® device.
Data Logging Yes Yes Yes Data logging records how the sound processor is being used in order to provide your audiologist with key information to help provide your best hearing experience.
FM Compatible Yes Yes Yes FM systems are among the most common hearing assistive technologies used with children, especially in school environments.
Compatible with Roger FM System Yes‡‡‡ Yes Yes The Roger™ FM System is a common wireless accessory used in schools as an alternative to a traditional FM system.
Ability to Use with the Telephone Yes: Made for iPhone connectivity, built-in telecoil, Wireless Phone Clip Yes: built-in telecoil, Phonak DECT Phone and Phonak Easy Call Accessory Yes: built-in telecoil, ClearSounds Quattro 4.0 Use the telephone to easily connect with family and friends.
Ability to Use in Water Yes: IP57 Yes: IP57 Yes: IP54 With a higher water resistance rating, your sound processor can be sweat-proof and splash-proof, even in high humidity.
Ability to Use Underwater - IP68 Yes§ Yes§§ Yes§§§ Being able to hear while in water is important to many people, particularly for parents who want their child to be able to play in the water like everyone else.
Remote Control Yes: (one included standard with new system) Yes: (accessory option) Yes: (one included standard with new system) Remote control technology allows you to manage your hearing in a discreet way. Parents find the remote control especially beneficial to help manage their child's hearing.
Smart App Control Yes No No ‭Conveniently manage and control your hearing from an Apple® ‭compatible device. Access personalized device use information ‭with the Hearing Tracker, view battery life status, locate a lost ‭sound processor and change volume and program settings.
Simultaneous Bilateral Control Yes Yes Yes You will enjoy the convenience of controlling both your left and right sound processors at the same time instead of individually.
Size (Smallest configuration – Height x Width x Depth in millimeters) Nucleus 7 CP1000 with Compact Battery: 36.5 x 9 x 45 Naida CI Q90 with PowerCel 110 Mini Battery: 40 x 9 x 19‖‖ SONNET with Micro Battery: 51.4 x 9.3 x 37.4 The size of the sound processor can impact how visible and comfortable it is on your ear.
Sound Processor Color Options 5 9 6 You can personalize your sound processor based on your preference and lifestyle.
Sound Processor Cover Options 0‖‖‖ 0 15 You can change your look every day to suit your mood.
Rechargeable Battery Life Compact: up to 19 hours
Standard: up to 40 hours
PowerCel:
110: up to 17 hours
170: up to 27 hours
230: up to 36 hours
Micro: up to 7 hours
Standard: up to 10 hours
A longer battery life provides confidence that you won't go without hearing.
Disposable Battery Life Disposable: up to 80 hours Disposable: up to 56 hours Disposable: up to 60 hours A longer battery life provides confidence that you won't go without hearing.
Retention Options Snugfit™ Snuggie™ Sports Headband Helps keep your sound processor securely in place, especially for active adults and children.
Pediatric-Friendly Wearing Options Compact Rechargeable Battery, Ear mold Adaptor, Hugfit™, Safety Cord, Koala Clip PowerCel™ Mini, PowerCel Plus, Naida CI Clip, Kinder Clip, Bionic Buddy Critter Clip Mellie Clip, Huggy, Activity Hook, BTE Headband, Micro Battery Pack Having a choice of wearing options for your child's sound processor provides you with additional peace of mind and keeps the sound processor off of little ears for increased comfort.
Sound Processor Alert Lights  Yes Yes Yes Alert lights on the sound processor let you know if everything is working as it should be, which is particularly beneficial for parents.
Accessory Choices with New Systems Choice of 4 accessories Choice of 1 bundle 0 Allows you to get the most out of your new system.

* The Acoustic Component should only be used when behavioral audiometric thresholds can be obtained and the recipient can provide feedback regarding sound quality.
** Naida CI Q90 EAS is not FDA approved.
*** SNR-NR, WNR and SCAN are approved for use with any recipient ages six years and older, who is able to 1) complete objective speech perception testing in quiet and in noise in order to determine and document performance 2) report a preference for different program settings.
Not approved for pediatric patients in the United States.
††If you use an Android™ device or any other smartphone, you can stream phone calls, music an more—directly to your Nucleus 7 Sound Processor by using the True Wireless Phone Clip. You can also control your Nucleus 7 Sound Processor with the Remote Control that comes with your new Nucleus 7 System.
††† Wireless ready for 2.4 GHz applications. Pending FDA approval.
Also compatible with the Cochlear Nucleus 7 Sound Procesor and Advanced Bionics Naida CI Q90 Sound Processor.
‡‡ With compatible ReSound hearing aids. A list of compatible hearing aids is available online at: www.Cochlear.com/US/Nucleus7Compatibility
‡‡‡ Compatible with the Phonak Roger™ 20 receiver
§ The Nucleus 7 Sound Processor with Aqua+ is water resistant to level IP68 of the International Standard IEC60529. This water protection rating means that the sound processor with the Aqua+ can be continuously submerged under water to a depth of 3 m (9 ft and 9 in) for up to 2 hours. This water protection only applies when you use a Cochlear Standard Rechargeable Battery Module or Cochlear Compact Rechargeable Battery Module.
§§ Naida is IP68 when used with the Aqua Case.
§§§ SONNET is IP68 when used with WaterWear.
If you use an Android™ device or any other smartphone, you can control your Nucleus 7 Sound Processor with the Remote Control that comes with your new Nucleus 7 System.
‖‖ Naida depth dimensions are without the earhook; Cochlear and MED-EL width dimensions include the earhook.
‖‖‖ Nucleus 7 Sound Processor Skinit® covers coming soon.
Battery life may vary.

Considerations When Choosing an Off-the-Ear Sound Processor

COMPANY COCHLEAR ADVANCED BIONICS MED-EL WHY IT MATTERS
Off-The-Ear Sound Processor Options

Kanso™ Sound Processor

Neptune™

RONDO®

Having flexibility to choose the sound processor option based on your needs and preferences allows you to customize your hearing experience.
Design Off-the-ear, single-unit sound processor Bodyworn sound processor that requires a cable to coil connection Off-the-ear, single-unit sound processor An off-the-ear solution provides more choices for those who prefer nothing on the ear or desire a more discreet wearing option.
Size (Smallest configuration – Height x Width x Depth in millimeters) 40.9 x 35.7 x 11.3 26 x 18 x 60 44.1 x 37.2 x 12.1 The size of the sound processor can impact how visible and comfortable it is on your ear.
Microphone Technology Dual microphones Single microphone* Single microphone Dual microphone technology is important for minimizing background noise.
Sound Input Technology SmartSound® iQ** ClearVoice™ *** FineHearing™ Input processing is designed to provide a clear signal to the implant, for an improved hearing performance.
Automatic Scene Classifier Yes (SCAN)** Yes (AutoSound™ OS) No Automatic Scene Classifiers make it easier to hear in noisy situations by automatically choosing the environment and optimizing the sound without the need for manual adjustments, just as natural hearing does.
Wireless Connectivity Available Yes No No Having the ability to connect to audio devices wirelessly makes hearing easier.
Wireless Technology Built into the Sound Processor  Yes No No Wireless technology makes listening easier by transmitting or streaming sound directly into your sound processor. Bluetooth® technology is enabled by 2.4 GHz.
Neck Loop Needed for Wireless Technology Not required Not available Not available Connecting wirelessly without the need for anything around your neck is more comfortable and convenient.
Wireless Accessories Mini Mic 2, Mini Mic 2+, Phone Clip, TV Streamer Not available Not available Having a range of affordable wireless accessories can complement your lifestyle and provide added flexibility to hear in certain environments, particulary noisy ones.
Ability to Amplify Sound Acoustically No No No Ability to use your low-frequency hearing with acoustic amplification may provide better speech understanding and improved sound quality.
Sound Processor Color Options 8 2 4 You can personalize your sound processor based on your preference and lifestyle.
Sound Processor Cover Options Customizable with Skinit® 10 Neptune Covers, customizable with Skinit® Customizable with Skinit® Express your personal style and interests.
Music Programs Yes Yes Yes Music is an important and soothing part of life, and hearing loss shouldn't get in the way of enjoying it.
Input Dynamic Range (IDR): Up to 75dB4 Up to 80dB5 Up to 75dB6 IDR tells you the range between the softest and loudest sounds that are captured by the sound processor.
Bimodal Streaming Yes, with all ReSound Smart Hearing™ Aids No No Having sound streamed to both ears may help you hear better in noise. Cochlear features wireless technology without the need for anything worn around the neck for added comfort and safety.
Data Logging Yes No No Data logging records how the sound processor is being used in order to provide your audiologist with key information to help provide your best hearing experience.
Ability to Use with the Telephone Yes: built-in telecoil, Wireless Phone Clip Yes: with T-Comm™ Accessory Yes: built-in telecoil Use the telephone to easily connect with family and friends.
FM Compatible Yes: with Mini Mic 2+ Yes: with Neptune Connect Yes: with Mini Battery Pack FM systems are among the most common hearing assistive technologies used with children, especially in school environments.
Compatible with Roger™ FM System Yes Not compatible with Neptune Yes The Roger™ FM System is a common wireless accessory used in schools as an alternative to a traditional FM system.
Water and Dust Resistant Rating IP54 IP44 Not disclosed With a higher water resistance rating, your sound processor can be sweat-proof and splash-proof, even in high humidity.
Ability to Use Underwater - IP68 Yes†† Yes††† Yes Being able to hear while in water is important to many people, particularly for parents who want their child to be able to play in the water like everyone else.
Remote Control Yes: (one included standard with new system) No Yes: (one included standard with new system) Remote control technology allows you to manage your hearing in a discreet way. Parents find the remote controls especially beneficial to help manage their child's hearing.
Advanced Remote Assistant Yes No No Managing your hearing with a full-featured Remote Assistant, that communicates directly with your sound processor, helps to put troubleshooting at your fingertips.
Simultaneous Bilateral Control Yes Yes Yes You will enjoy the convenience of controlling both your left and right sound processors at the same time instead of individually.
Retention Options Safety Line‡‡ with Alligator Clip or Hair Clip, Cochlear Headband Neptune Clip, Headband and Armband RONDO Attachment Clip, RONDO Hair Clip Helps keep your sound processor securely in place, especially for active adults and children.
Pediatric-Friendly Wearing Options Safety Line‡‡ with Alligator Clip or Hair Clip, Cochlear Headband Neptune Mini Pouch, Processor Harness, Swim Cap Mini Battery Pack Having a choice of wearing options for your child's sound processor provides you with additional peace of mind.
Sound Processor Alert Lights Yes Yes Yes Alert lights on the sound processor let you know if everything is working as it should be, which is particularly beneficial for parents.
Rechargeable Battery Life Not available Up to 21 hours‡‡‡ Not available A longer battery life provides confidence that you won't go without hearing.
Disposable Battery Life Disposable: up to 60 hours‡‡‡ AAA: up to 183 hours‡‡‡ Disposable: up to 72 hours‡‡‡ A longer battery life provides confidence that you won't go without hearing.
Accessory Choices with New Systems Choice of 4 accessories Choice of 1 bundle 0 Allows you to get the most out of your new system.

* T-Mic™ available with use of T-Comm™ accessory.
** SNR-NR, WNR and SCAN are approved for use with any recipient ages six years and older, who is able to 1) complete objective speech perception testing in quiet and in noise in order to determine and document performance 2) report a preference for different program settings.
*** Not approved for pediatric patients in the United States.
The Cochlear Nucleus Hybrid acoustic component is not compatible with the Kanso Sound Processor. The Kanso Sound Processor is not intended to be used by Hybrid L24 Cochlear Implant recipients who receive benefit from the acoustic component.
†† When used with the Aqua+ for Kanso. The Nucleus Aqua+ for Kanso is IP68 rated and approved for use with alkaline and nickel metal hydride batteries.
††† Neptune is not IP68 rated with Neptune Connect.
RONDO is IP68 when used with WaterWear.
‡‡ Retention lines longer than the Safety Line (standard length) are not recommended for use by children as they may present a risk of strangulation.
‡‡‡ Battery life may vary.

Considerations When Choosing an Implant

COMPANY COCHLEAR ADVANCED BIONICS MED-EL WHY IT MATTERS
Implant
CI24RE Profile
HiRes 90K HiRes 90K Advantage HiRes Ultra
CONCERT SYNCHRONY
Implant options to suit your individual needs.
Implant Receiver Thickness
6.9mm* 3.9mm*
5.5mm* 5.5mm* 4.5mm*
4.5mm* 4.5mm*
A thin implant receiver is designed to potentially provide a more discreet appearance and less time in surgery.
Latest Generation Implant Reliability
Not applicable 99.94% at 3 years7
Not applicable 99.65% at 3 years8 Not available
Not applicable 98.53% at 3 year9
Provides peace of mind and confidence that latest generation implants continue to be designed to last a lifetime.
Implant Reliability Over Time
99.0% at 12 years7 Not applicable
98.42% at 11 years8 Not applicable Not available
98.07% at 7 years9 Not applicable
Provides peace of mind and confidence that the implants are designed to work over time without the need for additional surgeries.
MRI Compatible Yes: 3.0 Tesla** and 1.5 Tesla**
Yes: 1.5 Tesla Yes: 3.0 Tesla and 1.5 Tesla††
Yes: 1.5 Tesla Yes: 3.0 Tesla
MRIs are an important medical tool, and you want reassurance you can get an MRI without concern.
Removable Magnet for MRI Yes Yes
No Yes
Removing the magnet can help provide a clearer image if MRI is needed for the head.
Number of Channels 22 Channels (22 electrodes) 16 Channels (16 electrodes) 12 Channels (19-24 electrodes - Up to 12 pairs) A higher number of channels could be beneficial with programming problem areas of the cochlea potentially giving you a better hearing performance.
Stimulation Rate (pulses per second) Cochlear: 32,000 pps Advanced Bionics: 83,000 pps Med-El: 50,704 pps The auditory nerve can handle only so much information at once. Cochlear designs the implants to exceed the auditory nerve's speed limit, but not so much that stimulation is wasted for efficient and effective stimulation to the hearing nerve.
Choice of Electrode Arrays 5 Electrode Arrays 3 Electrode Arrays 5 Electrode Arrays The cochlea comes in all different shapes and sizes so providing a selection can ensure that your surgeon can choose the best one based on your specific needs.
Hybrid Electrode
Yes No
No
No Yes
Provides your surgeon with an electrode array choice approved for hearing preservation.
Electrode Placed Closest to Hearing Nerve Yes: Slim Modiolar Electrode (CI532) No No Perimodiolar electrodes deliver focused stimulation due to their close proximity to the hearing nerve for optimal hearing performance.10
Thinnest Electrode Diameter Slim Straight Electrode (CI522)
Apical (Tip): 0.3mm*
Basal (Base): 0.6mm*
HiFocus 1J Electrode
Apical (Tip): 0.4mm*
Basal (Base): 0.8mm*
FLEX24 Electrode
Apical (Tip): 0.5x0.3mm*
Basal (Base): 0.8mm*
Thin electrodes are designed to preserve the delicate cochlear structures.

* Measurements according to manufacturers specifications collateral.
** Approved for MRI up to 3.0T with the magnet removed and at 1.5T with magnet in place with use of Cochlear Nucleus Implant Bandage and Splint Kit: Nucleus profile: CI512, CI522, CI532, Nucleus CI24RE: CI422, CI24REH, CI24RE(CA), and CI24RE(ST).
With magnet removed.
†† With magnet in place with MRI Antenna Coil Cover CI-7521 and bandaging protocol.
The Nucleus Hybrid Implant (L24) is approved in the US for adults ages 18 and older.


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References

  1. Cochlear Annual Report, 2017 August [Internet: pdf document]. 2017 August[cited 2017 Sept 6]. Available from: www.Cochlear.com.
  2. 2016 Cochlear Implant Reliability Report [Internet]. 028-M797-02 RevB ©2016 Advanced Bionics AG and affiliates. All rights reserved.[cited 30 May 2017]; Available from http://www.advancedbionics.com
  3. Sonova. Sonova Annual Report 2016/17. [Internet]. Stafa, Switzerland: publisher unknown; date unknown [ 2017; cited 2017 Sept 19]. Available from http://report.sonova.com/2017/ content/ home/01_Sonova_Annual_Report_2016_17_FULL_en.pdf
  4. Data on file.
  5. Firszt J. Advanced Bionics [Internet]. Milwaukee, WI: [publisher unknown]; [date unknown; cited 2016 NOV 11]. Available from: https://www.advancedbionics.com/content/dam/ab/ Global/en_ce/documents/libraries/Professional%20Library/AB%20Technical%20Reports/ Sound%20Processing/HiResolution_Sound_Processing_article.pdf
  6. Med-El [Internet]. Durham, NC: Med-El; [date unknown] [cited 2016 NOV 11]. Available from: http://www.medel.com/us/automatic-sound-management/
  7. 2017 Cochlear™ Nucleus ® Implant Reliability Report, Volume 15, January 2017 [cited 30th April 2017]
  8. 2016 Cochlear Implant Reliability Report [Internet]. 028-M797-02 RevB ©2016 Advanced Bionics AG and affiliates. All rights reserved.[cited 30 March 2017]; Available from: http:// www.advancedbionics.com/content/dam/ab/Global/en_ce/documents/candidate/2016- cochlear-implant-reliability-report.pdf
  9. Reliability You Can Count On [Internet]. MED-EL as of September 2017. Available from: http:// www.medel.com/reliability-reporting/
  10. Holden LK, Finley CC, Firszt JB, Holden TA, Brenner C, Potts LG, et al. Factors affecting openset word recognition in adults with cochlear implants. Ear Hear.2013 May-Jun;34(3):342-60.
  11. Esquia (2013): Esquia Medina, GN., Borel, S., Nguyen, Y., Ambert-Dahan, E., Ferrary, E., Sterkers, O., Bozorg Grayeli, A. Is Electrode-Modiolus Distance a Prognostic Factor for Hearing Performances after Cochlear ImplantSurgery. Audiol Neurotol. 2013;18:406-413. DOI: 10.1159/000354115.
  12. [3] Van der Beek (2005): van der Beek, FB., Boermans, PP., Verbist, BM.,Briaire, JJ., Frijns, JH. Clinical evaluation of the Clarion CII HiFocus 1 with and without positioner. Ear and Hearing. 2005 Dec; 26(6):577-92.
  13. Dowell, R. Evidence about the effectiveness of cochlear implants for adults. Evidence based practice in audiology : evaluating interventions for children and adults with hearing impairment. Plural Publishing. 141-166. 2012.
  14. Cohen L, Richardson L, Saunders E, Cowan R. Spatial spread of neural excitation in cochlear implant recipients: comparison of improved ECAP method and psychophysical forward masking. Hearing Research 179 (2003); p. 72-87.