1. Statement of significant accounting policies
This Financial Report was authorised for issue by the directors on 15 August 2006.
The significant policies which have been adopted in the preparation of this Financial Report are:
(a) Statement of compliance
The Financial Report is a general purpose financial report which has been prepared in accordance with Australian Accounting Standards adopted by the Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB) and the Corporations Act 2001.
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) form the basis of Australian Accounting Standards adopted by the AASB, and for the purpose of this report are called Australian equivalents to IFRS (AIFRS), to distinguish from previous Australian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (previous GAAP). The financial report of the Consolidated Entity also complies with IFRS and interpretations adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board.
This is the Consolidated Entity’s first AIFRS financial report prepared in accordance with Australian Accounting Standards, being AIFRS, and AASB 1 First-time Adoption of Australian Equivalents to International Financial Reporting Standards (AASB 1) has been applied.
An explanation of how the transition to AIFRS has affected the reported financial position, financial performance and cash flows of the Consolidated Entity is provided in Note 31. This note includes reconciliations of equity and profit for comparative periods reported under previous GAAP to those reported for those periods under AIFRS.
(b) Basis of preparation
The Financial Report is presented in Australian dollars, rounded off to the nearest one thousand, unless otherwise stated.
The Financial Report is prepared on the historical cost basis except that the following assets and liabilities are stated at their fair value: derivative financial instruments, and financial instruments classified as available for sale.
The entity has elected to early adopt the following revised accounting standards:
- AASB 119 Employee Benefits (December 2004);
- AASB 2004-3 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards (December 2004) amending AASB 1 First-time Adoption of Australian Equivalents to International Financial Reporting Standards (July 2004), AASB 101 Presentation of Financial Statements and AASB 124 Related Party Disclosures;
- AASB 2005-3 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards (June 2005) amending AASB 119 Employee Benefits (either July or December 2004);
- AASB 2005-4 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards (June 2005) amending AASB 139 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement, AASB 132 Financial Instruments: Disclosure and Presentation, AASB 1 First-time Adoption of Australian Equivalents to International Financial Reporting Standards (July 2004), AASB 1023 General Insurance Contracts and AASB 1038 Life Insurance Contracts;
- AASB 2005-5 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards (June 2005) amending AASB 1 First-time Adoption of Australian Equivalents to International Financial Reporting Standards (July 2004) and AASB 139 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement;
- AASB 2005-6 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards (June 2005) amending AASB 3 Business Combinations;
- AASB 2005-7 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards (June 2005) amending AASB 134 Interim Financial Reporting;
- AASB 2005-8 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards (June 2005) amending AASB 1 First-time Adoption of Australian Equivalents to International Financial Reporting Standards (July 2004); and
- AASB 2006-1 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards (January 2006) amending AASB 121 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates.
The following accounting standards and amendments were available for early adoption but have not been applied by the Consolidated Entity in these financial statements:
- AASB 2005-1 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards (May 2005) amending AASB 139 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement;
- AASB 2005-9 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards (September 2005) amending AASB 4 Insurance Contracts;
- AASB 2005-10 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards (September 2005) amending AASB 132 Financial Instruments: Disclosure and Presentation, AASB 101 Presentation of Financial Statements, AASB 114 Segment Reporting, AASB 117 Leases, AASB 133 Earnings per Share, AASB 139 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement, AASB 1 First-time adoption of Australian Equivalents to International Financial Reporting Standards, AASB 4 Insurance Contracts, AASB 1023 General Insurance Contracts and AASB 1038 Life Insurance Contracts; and
- AASB 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures (August 2005).
The impact of these standards is yet to be determined but they will be applied by the Consolidated Entity on the relevant application date.
The preparation of a financial report in conformity with the Australian Accounting Standards requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of policies and reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses. These estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis of making the judgements about carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.
Judgements made by management in the application of Australian Accounting Standards that have significant effect on the Financial Report and estimates with a significant risk of material adjustment in the next year are discussed in this Note 1.
(c) Basis of consolidation
Controlled entities are entities controlled by the Company. Control exits when the Company has the power, directly or indirectly, to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. In assessing control, potential voting rights that presently are exercisable or convertible are taken into account. The financial statements of controlled entities are included in the consolidated financial statements from the date that control commences until the date that control ceases.
Investments in controlled entities are carried at their cost of acquisition in the Company’s financial statements.
Associates are those entities in which the Consolidated Entity has significant influence, but not control, over the financial and operating policies. The consolidated financial statements include the Consolidated Entity’s share of the total recognised gains and losses of associates on an equity accounted basis, from the date that significant influence commences until the date that significant influence ceases. When the Consolidated Entity’s share of losses exceeds its interest in an associate, the Consolidated Entity’s carrying amount is reduced to nil and recognition of further losses is discontinued except to the extent that the Consolidated Entity has incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of an associate.
In the Company’s financial statements, investments in associates are carried at the cost of acquisition, less any impairment losses.
Transactions eliminated on consolidation
Intra-group balances and any unrealised gains and losses or income and expenses arising from intra-group transactions, are eliminated in preparing the consolidated financial statements.
Unrealised gains arising from transactions with associates are eliminated to the extent of the Consolidated Entity’s interest in the entity with adjustments made to the investment in associates and share of associates net profit accounts.
(d) Revenue recognition
Revenues are recognised at fair value of the consideration received net of the amount of goods and services tax (GST).
Sales revenue comprises revenue earned (net of returns, discounts and allowances) from the provision of products or services. Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised in the income statement when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer. No revenue is recognised if there are significant uncertainties regarding recovery of the consideration due, the costs incurred or to be incurred cannot be measured reliably, there is a risk of return of goods or there is continuing management involvement with the goods. Revenue from the sale of services is recognised when the service has been provided to the customer and where there are no continuing unfulfilled service obligations.
The accounting policy for foreign exchange gains/losses arising from hedges of forecast sales transactions is set out in accounting policy (h).
Other revenue, including government grants, is recognised on a systematic basis as income over the periods necessary to match it with the related costs for which it is intended to compensate or if the costs have already been incurred in the period in which it becomes receivable which is when the entitlement is confirmed.
Sales of non-current assets
The gain or loss on disposal of non-current assets is recognised as other operating income at the date control of the asset passes to the buyer, usually when an unconditional contract of sale is signed.
The gain or loss on disposal is calculated as the difference between the carrying amount of the asset at the time of disposal and the net proceeds on disposal (including incidental costs).
(e) Goods and services tax
Revenue, expenses and assets are recognised net of the amount of GST, except where the amount of GST incurred is not recoverable from the taxation authority. In these circumstances, the GST is recognised as part of the cost of acquisition of the asset or as part of the expense.
Receivables and payables are stated with the amount of GST included. The net amount of GST recoverable from, or payable to, the relevant taxation authority is included as a current asset or liability in the balance sheet.
Cash flows are included in the statement of cash flows on a gross basis. The GST components of cash flows arising from investing and financing activities which are recoverable from, or payable to, the relevant taxation authority are classified as operating cash flows.
(f) Foreign currency
Foreign currency transactions
Transactions in foreign currencies are translated at the foreign exchange rate ruling at the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at reporting date are translated to Australian dollars at the foreign exchange rate ruling at that date. Foreign exchange differences arising on translation are recognised in the income statement. Non-monetary assets and liabilities that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are stated at fair value are translated to Australian dollars at foreign exchange rates ruling at the dates the fair values were determined.
Financial statements of foreign operations
The assets and liabilities of foreign operations, including goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on consolidation, generally are translated to Australian dollars at foreign exchange rates ruling at that date. The revenues and expenses of foreign operations are translated to Australian dollars at rates approximating the foreign exchange rates ruling at the dates of transactions.
Net investment in foreign operations
Exchange differences arising from the translation of the net investment in foreign operations, and of related hedges are taken to the foreign currency translation reserve. They are released into the income statement upon disposal.
The AASB 1 election to reset the existing foreign currency translation reserve balance to nil on conversion has not been adopted.
(g) Derivative financial instruments
The Consolidated Entity uses derivative financial instruments to hedge its exposure to foreign exchange arising from operating, investing and financing activities. In accordance with its treasury policy, the Consolidated Entity does not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading purposes. However, derivatives that do not qualify for hedge accounting are accounted for as trading instruments.
Derivative financial instruments are recognised initially at fair value. Subsequent to initial recognition, derivative financial instruments are stated at fair value. The gain or loss on re-measurement to fair value is recognised immediately in the income statement. However, where derivatives qualify for hedge accounting, recognition of any resultant gain or loss depends on the nature of the item being hedged (see accounting policy (h)).
Cash flow hedges
Current period policy
Where a derivative financial instrument is designated as a hedge of the variability in cash flows of a recognised asset or liability, or a highly probable forecast transaction, the effective part of any gain or loss on the derivative financial instrument is recognised directly in equity. When the forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or non-financial liability, the associated cumulative gain or loss is removed from equity and included in the initial cost or other carrying amount of the non-financial asset or liability. If a hedge of a forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a financial asset or a financial liability, then the associated gains and losses that were recognised directly in equity are reclassified into the income statement in the same period or periods during which the asset acquired or liability assumed affects the income statement.
For cash flow hedges, other than those covered by the preceding statement, the associated cumulative gain or loss is removed from equity and recognised in the income statement in the same period or periods during which the hedged forecast transaction affects the income statement. The ineffective part of any gain or loss is recognised immediately in the income statement.
When a hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, or the Company revokes designation of the hedge relationship but the hedged forecast transaction still is expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss at that point remains in equity and is recognised in accordance with the above policy when the transaction occurs. If the hedged transaction is no longer expected to take place, then the cumulative unrealised gain or loss recognised in equity is recognised immediately in the income statement.
Comparative period policy
For the year ended 30 June 2005, the following accounting treatment was applied: transactions were designated as a hedge of the anticipated specific purchase or sale of goods or services, purchase of qualifying assets, or an anticipated interest transaction, only when they were expected to reduce exposure to the risks being hedged and were designated prospectively so that it was clear when an anticipated transaction had or had not occurred and it was probable the anticipated transaction would occur as designated. Gains or losses on the hedge arising up to the date of the anticipated transaction, together with any other costs or gains arising at the time of entering into the hedge, were deferred and included in the measurement of the anticipated transaction when the transaction had occurred as designated. Any gains or losses on the hedged transaction after that date were included in the income statement.
The net amounts receivable or payable under forward foreign exchange contracts and the associated deferred gains or losses were recorded on the balance sheet from the date of inception of the hedge transaction. When recognised, the net receivables or payables were revalued using the foreign currency exchange rate current at the reporting date.
When the anticipated transaction was no longer expected to occur as designated, the deferred gain or loss relating to the hedged transaction was recognised immediately in the income statement.
Where a hedge transaction was terminated early and the anticipated transaction was still expected to occur as designated, deferred gains and losses that arose on the foreign currency hedge prior to its termination continued to be deferred and were included in the measurement of the purchase or sale when it occurred. Where a hedge transaction was terminated early because the anticipated transaction was no longer expected to occur as designated, deferred gains and losses that arose on the foreign currency hedge prior to its termination were included in the income statement for the financial period.
Gains or losses that arose prior to and upon the maturity of transactions entered into under hedge rollover strategies were deferred and included in the measurement of the hedged anticipated transaction if the transaction was still expected to occur as designated. If the anticipated transaction was no longer expected to occur as designated, gains or losses were recognised immediately in the income statement.
Hedge of monetary assets and liabilities
When a derivative financial instrument is used to hedge economically the foreign exchange exposure of a recognised monetary asset or liability, hedge accounting is not applied and any gain or loss on the hedging instrument is recognised in the income statement.
Hedge of net investment in foreign operations
The portion of the gain or loss on an instrument used to hedge a net investment in a foreign operation that is determined to be an effective hedge is recognised directly in equity. The ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the income statement.
(i) Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash balances and call deposits with an original maturity of three months or less. Bank overdrafts that are repayable on demand and form an integral part of the Consolidated Entity’s cash management are included as a component of cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of the statement of cash flows.
A provision is recognised in the balance sheet when the Consolidated Entity has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of a past event, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation.
Provisions for warranty claims are made for claims in relation to sales made prior to the reporting date, based on historical claim rates and respective product populations. The provision is determined on a discounted cash flow basis. Warranty periods on hardware products extend for three to 10 years. The Consolidated Entity is expected to incur the majority of the liability over the next three to 10 years.
A provision for dividends payable is recognised in the financial period in which the dividends are declared.
Restructuring, employee termination benefits and surplus lease space
Provisions for restructuring or termination benefits are only recognised when a detailed plan has been approved and the restructuring or termination has either commenced or been publicly announced, or firm contracts related to the restructuring or termination benefits have been entered into. Costs related to ongoing activities are not provided for. The liabilities for termination benefits that will be paid as a result of these restructurings have been included in the provision for employee benefits.
Provision is made for non-cancellable operating lease rentals payable on surplus leased premises when it is determined that no substantive future benefit will be obtained from their occupancy and sub-lease rentals are less than the lease rentals paid. The estimate is calculated based on discounted net future cash flows, using the interest rate implicit in the lease or an estimate thereof.
The Company self-insures to manage certain risks associated with operating in its line of business. Outstanding claims are recognised when an incident occurs that may give rise to a claim and are measured at the cost that the entity expects to incur in settling the claims, discounted using a rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability.
Make good lease costs
The Consolidated Entity has a number of operating leases over its offices that require the asset to be returned to the lessor in its original condition. The operating lease payments do not include an element for the repairs/overhauls.
A provision for make good lease costs is recognised at the time it is determined that it is probable that such costs will be incurred in a future period, measured at the expected cost of returning the asset to the lessor in its original condition. The Consolidated Entity is expected to incur the liability within the next 12 years. An offsetting asset of the same value is also recognised and is classified in plant and equipment. This asset is amortised to the income statement over the life of the lease.
(k) Intangible assets
All business combinations are accounted for by applying the purchase method. Goodwill represents the difference between the cost of the acquisition and the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired.
Goodwill is stated at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. Goodwill is allocated to cash generating units and is no longer amortised but is tested annually for impairment (see accounting policy (l)).
Negative goodwill arising on an acquisition is recognised directly in the income statement.
Enterprise resource planning system
The external expenditure incurred on hardware and software and the external costs necessary for the implementation of the system are recognised as an intangible asset, to the extent that the Company controls future economic benefits as a result of the costs incurred, and is stated at cost less accumulated amortisation. All internal development, licence and support costs attributable to feasibility, alternative approach assessment and implementation are expensed as incurred.
Research and development expenditure
Expenditure on research activities, undertaken with the prospect of gaining new scientific or technical knowledge and understanding, is recognised in the income statement as an expense as incurred.
Expenditure on development activities, whereby research findings are applied to a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products and processes, is capitalised if the product or process is technically and commercially feasible and the Consolidated Entity has sufficient resources to complete development.
The expenditure capitalised includes the cost of materials, direct labour and an appropriate proportion of overheads. Other development expenditure is recognised in the income statement as an expense as incurred. Capitalised development expenditure is stated at cost less accumulated amortisation (see below) and impairment losses (see accounting policy (l)).
Other intangible assets
Other intangible assets, principally comprising of technology acquired, customer relationships and intellectual property, are acquired individually or through business combinations and are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation (see below) and impairment losses (see accounting policy (l)).
Expenditure on internally generated goodwill and brands is recognised in the income statement as an expense as incurred.
Subsequent expenditure on capitalised intangible assets is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates. All other expenditure is expensed as incurred.
Amortisation is charged to the income statement on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the intangible assets unless such lives are indefinite. Goodwill and intangible assets with an indefinite useful life are systematically tested for impairment annually. Other intangible assets are amortised from the date that they are available for use. The estimated useful lives for the current and comparative periods are as follows:
|Acquired technology || ||4 years |
|Enterprise resource planning system || ||2.5 - 4 years |
|Customer relationships || ||4 years |
|Intellectual property || ||3 years |
|Capitalised development expenditure || ||1 - 3 years. |
The carrying amounts of the Consolidated Entity’s assets, other than inventories (see accounting policy (n)), employee benefit assets (see accounting policy (o)), and deferred tax assets (see accounting policy (q)), are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated (see below).
For goodwill, assets that have an indefinite useful life and intangible assets that are not yet available for use, the recoverable amount is estimated at each balance sheet date.
An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount. Impairment losses are recognised in the income statement unless the asset has previously been revalued, in which case the impairment loss is recognised as a reversal to the extent of that previous revaluation with any excess recognised through the income statement.
Impairment losses recognised in respect of cash generating units are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the cash generating unit or a group of units and then, to reduce the carrying amount of the other assets in the unit or a group of units on a pro-rata basis.
Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets were tested for impairment at 1 July 2004, the date of transition to AIFRS, even though no indication of impairment existed.
Calculation of recoverable amount
The recoverable amount of the Consolidated Entity’s investments in held-to-maturity receivables carried at amortised cost is calculated as the present value of estimated future cash flows, discounted at the original effective interest rate (that is, the effective interest rate computed at initial recognition of these financial assets). Receivables with a short duration are not discounted.
Impairment of receivables is not recognised until objective evidence is available that a loss event has occurred. Significant receivables are individually assessed for impairment. Impairment testing of significant receivables that are not assessed as impaired individually is performed by placing them into portfolios of significant receivables with similar risk profiles and undertaking a collective assessment of impairment. Non-significant receivables are not individually assessed. Instead, impairment testing is performed by placing non-significant receivables in portfolios of similar risk profiles, based on objective evidence from historical experience adjusted for any effects of conditions existing at each balance date.
The allowance for impairment is calculated with reference to the profile of debtors in the Consolidated Entity’s sales and marketing regions.
The recoverable amount of other assets is the greater of their fair value less costs to sell, and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. For an asset that does not generate largely independent cash inflows, the recoverable amount is determined for the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs.
Reversals of impairment
An impairment loss in respect of a receivable carried at amortised cost is reversed if the subsequent increase in recoverable amount can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognised.
An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is not reversed.
In respect of other assets, an impairment loss is reversed when there is an indication that the impairment loss may no longer exist and there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount.
An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.
(m) Plant and equipment
Items of plant and equipment are stated at cost or deemed cost less accumulated depreciation (see below) and impairment losses (see accounting policy (l)). An asset’s cost is determined as consideration provided plus incidental costs directly attributable to the acquisition.
The cost of self-constructed assets includes the cost of material and direct labour, an appropriate proportion of fixed and variable overheads, and capitalised interest.
Subsequent costs in relation to replacing a part of plant and equipment are recognised in the carrying amount if it is possible that future economic benefits embodied within the item will flow to the Consolidated Entity and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other costs are recognised in the income statement as incurred.
Payments made under operating leases are expensed on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease, except where an alternative basis is more representative of the pattern of benefits to be derived from the leased property. Minimum lease payments include fixed rate step-ups.
Items of plant and equipment, including leasehold assets, are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, taking into account estimated residual values. Assets are depreciated from the date of acquisition or, in respect of internally constructed assets, from the time an asset is completed and held ready for use.
Depreciation rates and methods and residual values are reviewed annually for appropriateness. When changes are made, adjustments are reflected prospectively in current and future financial periods only.
The estimated useful lives in the current and comparative periods are as follows:
Leasehold improvements 5 - 9 years
Plant and equipment 3 - 8 years.
Inventories are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less estimated costs of completion and selling, marketing and distribution expenses.
Cost is based on the first-in-first-out principle and includes expenditure incurred in acquiring the inventories and bringing them to their existing condition and location. In the case of manufactured inventories and work in progress, cost includes an appropriate share of both variable and fixed overhead costs. Fixed overhead costs are allocated on the basis of normal operating capacity.
(o) Employee benefits
Defined contribution plans
Obligations for contributions to defined contribution pension plans are recognised as an expense in the income statement as incurred.
Defined benefit plans
The Consolidated Entity has early adopted the revised AASB 119 Employee Benefits (December 2004) (AASB 119).
A liability or asset in respect of defined benefit superannuation plans is recognised in the balance sheet, and is measured as the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the reporting date plus unrecognised actuarial gains or losses less the fair value of the plan’s assets at that date and any unrecognised past service cost. The present value of the defined benefit obligation is based on expected future payments which arise from membership of the plan to the reporting date, calculated annually by independent actuaries using the projected unit credit method.
When the calculation results in plan assets exceeding liabilities to the Consolidated Entity, the recognised asset is limited to the net total of any unrecognised actuarial losses and past service costs and the present value of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan.
Past service cost is the increase in the present value of the defined benefit obligation for employee services in prior periods, resulting in the current period from the introduction of, or changes to, post-employment benefits or other long-term employee benefits. Past service costs may either be positive (where benefits are introduced or improved) or negative (where existing benefits are reduced).
Expected future payments are discounted using market yields at the reporting date on national government bonds with terms to maturity and currency that match the estimated future cash flows.
When the benefits of a plan are improved, the portion of the increased benefit relating to past service by employees is recognised as an expense in the income statement on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested. To the extent that the benefits vest immediately, the expense is recognised immediately in the income statement.
The full amount of actuarial gains and losses that arise subsequent to transition date will be recognised directly in retained earnings.
Wages, salaries and annual leave
Liabilities for employee benefits for wages, salaries and annual leave expected to settle within 12 months of the year end represent present obligations resulting from employees’ services provided up to reporting date, calculated at undiscounted amounts based on remuneration wage and salary rates that the Consolidated Entity expects to pay as at reporting date including related on-costs, such as workers’ compensation insurance and payroll tax.
Long service leave
The provision for employee benefits to long service leave represents the present value of the estimated future cash outflows to be made by the employer resulting from employees’ services provided up to reporting date.
The provision is calculated using expected future increases in remuneration rates, including related on-costs and expected settlement dates based on turnover history, and is discounted using the rates attaching to national government securities at reporting date, which most closely match the terms of maturity of the related liabilities. The unwinding of the discount is treated as a long service leave expense.
Share based payment transactions
The Company has granted options and performance shares to certain employees under an Executive Share Option Plan (ESOP) and the Cochlear Executive Long Term Incentive Plan (CELTIP).
The fair value of options and shares granted is recognised as an employee benefits expense with a corresponding increase in equity. The fair value is measured at the date the options or shares are granted taking into account market and non-market based criteria and expensed over the vesting period after which the employees become unconditionally entitled to the options and shares. The fair value of the options granted is measured using the Black-Scholes method, taking into account the terms and conditions attached to the options. The fair value of the performance shares granted is measured using the weighted average share price of ordinary shares in the Company, taking into account the terms and conditions attached to the shares. The amount recognised as an expense is adjusted to reflect the actual number of options and shares that vest except where forfeiture is due to market related conditions.
The exemption under AASB 1 has been applied, resulting in no adjustment being made for options granted prior to 7 November 2002 which had vested before 1 July 2004. Options granted after 7 November 2002 and remaining unvested at 1 January 2004 have been recognised through the opening balance sheet.
The Company operates the Cochlear Executive Long Term Incentive Plan (Performance Shares) Trust (Trust). The main purpose of the Trust is to hold unvested performance shares as part of the CELTIP. Under AIFRS, the Trust qualifies as an equity compensation plan special purpose entity and its results are included in those for the Consolidated Entity.
At transition date, the Trust held shares of the Company. The shares are accounted for as treasury shares and treated as a reduction in the share capital of the Company and the Consolidated Entity.
Trade and other receivables are stated at amortised cost less impairment losses (see accounting policy (l)).
Income tax on the income statement for the periods presented comprises current and deferred tax. Income tax is recognised in the income statement except to the extent that it relates to items recognised directly in equity, in which case it is recognised in equity.
Current tax is the expected tax payable on the taxable income for the year, using tax rates enacted or substantially enacted at reporting date, and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.
Deferred tax is provided using the balance sheet liability method, providing for temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes. The following temporary differences are not provided for: the initial recognition of goodwill and other assets or liabilities that affect neither accounting nor taxable profit, and differences relating to investments in subsidiaries to the extent that they will probably not reverse in the foreseeable future. The amount of deferred tax provided is based on the expected manner of realisation or settlement of the carrying amount of assets and liabilities, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at reporting date.
A deferred tax asset is recognised only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the asset can be utilised. Deferred tax assets are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realised.
Trade and other payables are stated at amortised cost.
(s) Interest bearing liabilities
Effective 1 July 2005, interest bearing liabilities are recognised initially at fair value less attributable transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, interest bearing liabilities are stated at amortised cost with any difference between cost and redemption value being recognised in the income statement over the period of the borrowings on an effective interest rate basis.
Until 30 June 2005, bank loans were carried in the balance sheet at their principal amount. Interest expense was accrued at the contracted rate and included in payables.
(t) Net financing income
Financial costs include interest, finance charges in respect of finance leases. Debt establishment costs are capitalised and recognised as a reduction in interest bearing liabilities. They are calculated based on the effective interest rate method and are amortised over the period of the loan.
Interest income is recognised as it accrues. Dividend income from subsidiaries is recognised by the parent when the dividends are declared by the subsidiary. Foreign exchange differences net of the effect of hedges on borrowings are recognised in net financing income.
(u) Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share (EPS) is calculated by dividing the net profit attributable to equity holders of the parent for the financial period, after excluding any costs of servicing equity (other than ordinary shares) by the weighted average number of ordinary shares of the Company, adjusted for any bonus issue.
Diluted EPS is calculated by dividing the basic EPS earnings, adjusted by the after-tax effect of financing costs associated with the dilutive potential ordinary shares and the effect on revenues and expenses of conversion to ordinary shares associated with dilutive potential ordinary shares, by the weighted average number of ordinary shares and dilutive potential ordinary shares of the Company adjusted for any bonus issue.
(v) Segment reporting
A segment is a distinguishable component of the Consolidated Entity that is engaged either in providing products or services within a particular economic environment (geographical segment), or in providing products or services (business segment), which is subject to risks and rewards that are different from those of other segments.
(w) Accounting estimates and judgements
Management discussed with the Audit Committee the development, selection and disclosure of the Consolidated Entity’s critical accounting policies and estimates and the application of these policies and estimates.
Key sources of estimation uncertainty
US Department of Justice Inquiry
The Company was informed by the US Department of Justice that Cochlear America’s, a wholly-owned subsidiary, is subject to an inquiry. For further details, refer to Note 22.